The Physics
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Opus in profectus

Density

Discussion

Confusion of mass and density. Objects have mass. Materials have density.

Density is the ratio of mass to volume for a material.

 ρ = m V

Units

1,000 kg/m3 = 1,000 g/l = 1 g/cm3

Density of Selected Materials (~20 ℃, 1 atm)
material density
(kg/m3)
material density
(kg/m3)
acetone 790   kerosene 810
acid, acetic (CH3COOH) 1,050   lard 919
acid, hydrochloric (HCl) ????   lead 11,350
acid, sulfuric (H2SO4) 1,390   lithium 534
air, 100 K 3.556   lithium 6 deuteride 820
air, 200 K 1.746   lungs 400
air, 293 K 1.207   mayonnaise, traditional 910
air, 300 K 1.161   mayonnaise, light 1,000
air, 500 K 0.696   methane, gas, +25 ℃ 0.656
air, 1,000 K 0.340   methane, liquid, −90 ℃ 162
alcohol, ethyl (grain) 789.2   milk, cow, heavy cream 994
alcohol, isopropyl (rubbing) 785.4   milk, cow, light cream 1,012
alcohol, methyl (wood) 791.3   milk, cow, whole 1,030
ammonia 771   milk, cow, skim 1,033
aluminum 2,700   mercury 13,594
argon, gas, ~300 K 1.449   monosodium glutamate 1,620
argon, liquid, 87 K 1,430   nickel 8,900
beer, pilsner, 4 ℃ 1,008   nitrogen (N2), gas, ~300 K 1.145
benzene 870   nitrogen (N2), liquid, 74 K 808
blood 1,035   oil, vegetable, coconut 924
body fat 918   oil, vegetable, corn 922
bone 1,900   oil, vegetable, olive 918
butane 551   oil, vegetable, palm 915
butter 911   oil, vegetable, peanut 914
carbon 2,250   oil, vegetable, soya 927
carbon, diamond 3,539   osmium 22,500
carbon dioxide, gas, +25 ℃ 1.799   oxygen (O2), gas, ~300 K 1.308
carbon dioxide, solid, −78 ℃ 1,562   oxygen (O2), liquid, 87 K 1,155
copper 8,960   perchlorethylene 1,600
corn starch, loosely packed 540   platinum 21,450
corn starch, tightly packed 630   plutonium, α 19,860
corn syrup 1,380   salt (sodium chloride) 2,165
diesel 800   silicon 2,330
formaldehyde 1,130   silicon dioxide (quartz) 2,600
freon 12, liquid 1,311   silicone 993
freon 12, vapor 36.83   silver 10,490
gasoline 803   skin 1,050
glycerine 1,260   sodium bicarbonate 2,200
gold 19,300   sugar, sucrose 1,550
grain, barley 620   titanium 4,500
grain, corn, shelled 720   tungsten 19,300
grain, corn, ear 900   uranium 19,050
grain, flax 770   water, liquid, 100 ℃ 958.40
grain, millet 640   water, liquid, 50 ℃ 988.03
grain, oats 410   water, liquid, 30 ℃ 995.65
grain, rice, rough 580   water, liquid, 20 ℃ 998.21
grain, rice, hulled 750   water, liquid, 10 ℃ 999.70
grain, rye 720   water, liquid, 4 ℃ 999.98
grain, wheat 770   water, liquid, 0 ℃ 999.84
helium, gas, ~300 K 0.164   water, ice, 0 ℃ 916
helium, liquid, 4 K 147   water, ice, -50 ℃ 922
hydrogen (H2), gas, 300 K 0.082   water, ice, −100 ℃ 927
hydrogen (H2), liquid, 17 K 71   water, sea 1,025
honey 1,420   water, saline (0.9 % NaCl) 1,004
iron 7,870   zinc 7,140
iridium 22,400
object density
(kg/m3)
object density
(kg/m3)
earth, average () 5,500   main sequence stars 5~5,000
earth, core 12,500   giant to supergiant stars 10−4~10−6
terrestrial planets (, , ) 3,900~5,200   white dwarf star 105~109
jovian planets (, , , ) 600~1,600   neutron star 1017~1018
pluto () 1,900   stellar mass black hole ~1018
comets ~600   supermassive black hole ~107
sun, average () 1,400   observable universe ~10−26
sun, core 153,000

Density as a general concept.

• superficial density
• linear density
• charge density
• population density