The Physics
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Opus in profectus

# Density

## Discussion

Confusion of mass and density. Objects have mass. Materials have density.

Density is the ratio of mass to volume for a material.

 ρ = m V

Units

1,000 kg/m3 = 1,000 g/l = 1 g/cm3

Density of selected materials (~20 °C, 1 atm)
material density (kg/m3)
acetone 790
acid, acetic (CH3COOH) 1,050
acid, hydrochloric (HCl) ????
acid, sulfuric (H2SO4) 1,390
air, 100 K 3.556
air, 200 K 1.746
air, 293 K 1.207
air, 300 K 1.161
air, 500 K 0.696
air, 1,000 K 0.340
alcohol, ethyl (grain) 789.2
alcohol, isopropyl (rubbing) 785.4
alcohol, methyl (wood) 791.3
ammonia 771
aluminum 2,700
argon, gas, 15 °C 1.69
argon, liquid, 87 K 1,400
beer, pilsner, 4 °C 1,008
benzene 870
blood 1,035
body fat 918
bone 1,900
butane 551
butter 911
carbon 2,250
carbon, diamond 3,539
carbon dioxide, gas, +25 °C 1.799
carbon dioxide, solid, −78 °C 1,562
copper 8,960
corn starch, loosely packed 540
corn starch, tightly packed 630
corn syrup 1,380
diesel 800
formaldehyde 1,130
freon 12, liquid 1,311
freon 12, vapor 36.83
gasoline 803
glycerine 1,260
gold 19,300
grain, barley 620
grain, corn, shelled 720
grain, corn, ear 900
grain, flax 770
grain, millet 640
grain, oats 410
grain, rice, rough 580
grain, rice, hulled 750
grain, rye 720
grain, wheat 770
helium, gas, 15 °C 0.169
helium, liquid, 4 K 125
hydrogen (H2), gas, 15 °C 0.0852
hydrogen (H2), liquid, 20 K 70.5
honey 1,420
iron 7,870
iridium 22,400
material density (kg/m3)
kerosene 810
lard 919
lithium 534
lithium 6 deuteride 820
lungs 400
mayonnaise, light 1,000
methane, gas, +15 °C 0.680
methane, liquid, 110 K 422
milk, cow, heavy cream 994
milk, cow, light cream 1,012
milk, cow, whole 1,030
milk, cow, skim 1,033
mercury 13,546
monosodium glutamate 1,620
nickel 8,900
nitrogen (N2), gas, 15 °C 1.18
nitrogen (N2), liquid, 77 K 806
oil, vegetable, coconut 924
oil, vegetable, corn 922
oil, vegetable, olive 918
oil, vegetable, palm 915
oil, vegetable, peanut 914
oil, vegetable, soya 927
osmium 22,500
oxygen (O2), gas, 15 °C 1.354
oxygen (O2), liquid, 90 K 1,140
perchlorethylene 1,600
platinum 21,450
plutonium, α 19,860
salt (sodium chloride) 2,165
silicon 2,330
silicon dioxide (quartz) 2,600
silicone 993
silver 10,490
skin 1,050
sodium bicarbonate 2,200
sugar, sucrose 1,550
titanium 4,500
tungsten 19,300
tungsten carbide (WC) 15,630
uranium 19,050
water, liquid, 100 °C 958.40
water, liquid, 50 °C 988.03
water, liquid, 30 °C 995.65
water, liquid, 20 °C 998.21
water, liquid, 10 °C 999.70
water, liquid, 3.984 °C 999.972
water, liquid, 0 °C 999.84
water, ice, 0 °C 916
water, ice, −50 °C 922
water, ice, −100 °C 927
water, sea 1,025
water, saline (0.9 % NaCl) 1,004
xenon, gas, 15 °C 5.58
xenon, liquid, 165 K 2,940
zinc 7,140
Average density of some celestial bodies
object density (kg/m3)
earth, average () 5,500
earth, core 12,500
terrestrial planets (,,) 3,900~5,200
jovian planets (,,,) 600~1,600
pluto () 1,900
comets ~600
sun, average () 1,400
sun, core 153,000
object density (kg/m3)
main sequence stars 5~5,000
giant to supergiant stars 10−4~10−6
white dwarf star 105~109
neutron star 1017~1018
stellar mass black hole ~1018
supermassive black hole ~107
observable universe ~10−26

Density as a general concept.

• mass density
Mass density equations
space algebraic calculus SI unit
volume, volumetric, volumic  ρ = m V
 ρ = dm dV
 ⎡⎢⎣ kg ⎤⎥⎦ m3
area, areal, areic, surface, superficial  σ = m A
 σ = dm dΑ
 ⎡⎢⎣ kg ⎤⎥⎦ m2
line, linear, lineic  λ = m ℓ
 λ = dm dℓ
 ⎡⎢⎣ kg ⎤⎥⎦ m
• charge density, see charge
• current density, see current
• number density, especially in this book…
• flux density (is a term I hate)
• electric field is sometimes called electric flux density (because some people just hate life)
• magnetic field is sometimes called magnetic flux density (or magnetic induction, which is a term that was surely invented just to cause pain in others)
• population density is a term from geography