- Your Mother gives you a kilogram of aluminum and a kilogram of lead. Both objects are solid, rectangular blocks.
- Which is more massive on the surface of the earth?
- Which is more massive on the surface of the moon?
- Which is heavier on the surface of the earth?
- Which is heavier on the surface of the moon?
We will return to this question in the section on buoyancy. (The phrase "more massive" means "has more mass" not "fills more space".)
- A lucite cube has a mass of 142.5 g and a width of 4.9 cm. Determine its density in kg/m3.
Lucite cube on electronic balance
Ruler next to Lucite cube
- It has been known for several thousand years that the Earth is spherical (by educated people, at least). Sometime in the Second Century BCE the size of the Earth was determined (rearth = 6,370 km). By the Nineteenth Century its mass was known (mearth = 5.97 × 1024 kg). And in the early Twentieth Century the structure of the Earth was deduced. The earth has three main layers: crust, mantle, and core. The crust of the is the lightest and thinnest and, like the shell of an egg, contributes little to its overall mass. The mantle is a bit more dense, substantially thicker, and contains most of the Earth's mass. The core is the densest layer (but not the most massive) and is divided into a liquid outer core and a solid inner core. The relevant data for the interior of the Earth are summarized below.
layer depth range (km) mean density (kg/m3) consistency crust 0 ~ 20 2700 solid mantle 20 ~ 2890 4500 plastic outer core 2890 ~ 5160 ? liquid inner core 5160 ~ 6370 ? solid
- the average density of the entire earth
- the percent of the Earth's mass located in the mantle, and
- the average density of the core.
- Write something completely different.
- Mayonnaise is essentially a mixture of vegetable oil and water with a bit of egg yolk added as an emulsifier (a substance that keeps the oil and water from separating). Traditional mayonnaise has a density of about 910 kg/m3 while reduced fat, low calorie, or "light" mayonnaise has a density of about 1,000 kg/m3. Why is "light" (low calorie) mayonnaise "heavier" (more dense) than traditional mayonnaise?
- Why does "heavy cream" have a lower density than "light cream"? Explain this apparent contradiction.
- Find the mass of the air contained in a room that is 16.40 m long by 4.5 m wide by 3.26 m high.
- Detemine the mean density of the Earth, moon, and sun. (That's the mean value for each object individually, not the mean of all three objects collectively.) Compile your results in a table like the one below.
object mass radius density (kg/m3) the earth the moon the sun
- Determine the density of the following astronomical objects arranged in order of increasing mass. (Pay attention to the units.)
object mass radius density (kg/m3) the sun 1.99 × 1030 kg 696,000 km
white dwarf star 0.5 to 1.4
neutron star 1.4 to 3
stellar black hole more than 3 solar masses 2Gm/c2
supermassive black hole > 106 solar masses 2Gm/c2
the known universe 1053 kg 13.8 × 109 light years
- It is usually said that the moon has no atmosphere, but this is not quite true. The moon's atmosphere is nowhere near as dense as the Earth's or even that of Mars (which is pretty thin) but it is more dense than the "vacuum" of interplanetary space. The table below gives the partial densities of the constituent gases in the moon's atmosphere in particles per cubic centimeter.
particle (atom, molecule, ion) partial density name symbol mass (u) (particles/cm3) (u/cm3) helium 42He 4 40,000 hydrogen H2 2 35,000 argon 40 4018Ar 40 30,000 neon 2210Ne 22 05,000 argon 36 3618Ar 36 02,000 methane CH4 16 01,000 ammonia NH3 18 01,000 carbon dioxide CO2 44 01,000 oxygen O+ 16 trace n/a aluminum Al+ 27 trace n/a silicon Si+ 28 trace n/a phosphorous P+ 31 possible n/a sodium Na+ 23 possible n/a magnesium Mg+ 24 possible n/a total density → The lunar atmosphere Source: NASA
- Complete the table above.
- Determine the density of the moon's atmosphere in kg/m3.
- Complete the following table with values in SI units.
object mass (kg) radius (m) density (kg/m3) iron shot put 7.26
iron atom's electron cloud