Special Symbols

  symbol unicode decimal value
english name uppercase lowercase uppercase lowercase
alpha Α α 0913 0945
beta Β β, ϐ 0914 0946, 0976
gamma Γ γ 0915 0947
delta Δ, ∆ δ 0916, 8710 0948
epsilon Ε ε, ϵ 0917 0949, 1013
zeta Ζ ζ 0918 0950
eta Η η 0919 0951
theta Θ, ϴ θ, ϑ 0920, 1012 0952, 0977
iota Ι ι 0921 0953
kappa Κ κ, ϰ 0922 0954, 1008
lambda Λ λ 0923 0955
mu Μ μ, µ 0924 0956, 0181
nu Ν ν 0925 0957
xi Ξ ξ 0926 0958
omicron Ο ο 0927 0959
pi Π π, ϖ 0928 0960, 0982
rho Ρ ρ, ϱ 0929 0961, 1009
sigma Σ, ∑ σ, ς* 0931, 8721 0963, 0962*
tau Τ τ 0932 0964
upsilon Υ, ϒ υ 0933, 0978 0965
phi Φ φ, ϕ 0934 0966, 0981
chi Χ χ 0935 0967
psi Ψ ψ 0936 0968
omega Ω, Ω ω 0937, 8486 0969
The Greek alphabet (with variants)
There are two variants of lowercase sigma. The second is used only at the end of Greek words and (to the best of my knowledge) never as a symbol by itself.
symbol unicode name
+ 0043 plus, add, positive
8722 minus, subtract, negative
± 0177 plus and minus, uncertainty, error
· 0183 dot product, scalar product
× 0215 cross product, vector product
÷, /, ∕ 0247, 0047, 8725 divided by
= 0061 equal to
8776 approximately equal to
8733 proportional to
8800 not equal to, inequality
~ 0127 on the order of (tilde)
< 0060 less than
> 0062 greater than
8804 less than or equal to
8805 greater than or equal to
…, ⋯, ⋮ 8230, 8943, 8942 and so on (ellipsis)
8756 therefore
n/a* unit x vector, i hat (i with circumflex)
n/a* unit y vector, j hat (j with circumflex)
n/a* unit z vector, k hat (k with circumflex)
n/a* unit radial vector, r hat (r with circumflex)
θ̂ n/a* unit angular vector, theta hat (theta with circumflex)
n/a* unit general vector, n hat (n with circumflex)
8501 transfinite number (alef)
8706 partial differential
Δ, ∆ 0916, 8710 increment, change (delta)
8711 del, nabla
Σ, ∑ 0931, 8721 summation (sigma)
√, ⎷ 8730, 9143 square root
8731 cube root
8734 infinity
8741 parallel
8869 perpendicular (up tack)
8747 integral
8748 double integral
8749 triple integral
8750 contour integral
8751 surface integral
8752 volume integral
10216 left mathematical angle bracket, bra
10217 right mathematical angle bracket, ket
Mathematics
To add a "hat" to a symbol, follow it with a combining circumflex accent (unicode 0770).
symbol unicode name
8496 efficiency, emf (script capital e)
ƒ 0402 frequency, friction, function (long f, f with hook)
8464 impulse (script capital i)
8467 length (script small l)
8462 planck's constant
8463 reduced planck's constant (h bar)
° 0176 degree
8451 degree celsius
8457 degree fahrenheit
8490 kelvin
8486 ohm (omega)
8487 inverse ohm, mho (inverted omega)
8491 ångstrom (capital a with ring above)
Variables, Constants, Units
symbol unicode name symbol unicode name
9737 sun 9800 aries
9791 mercury 9801 taurus
9792 venus 9802 gemini
9793 earth 9803 cancer
☾, ☽ 9790, 9789 moon 9804 leo
9794 mars 9805 virgo
9795 jupiter 9806 libra
9796 saturn 9807 scorpius
♅, ⛢ 9797, 9954 uranus 9808 sagittarius
9798 neptune 9809 capricorn
♇,  9799, no code pluto 9810 aquarius
9907 ceres 9811 pisces
Astronomy
Music
symbol unicode name
9837 flat, semitone lower
9838 natural, no semitone adjustment
9839 sharp, semitone higher
symbol unicode name
9843 polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE)
9844 high density polyethylene (HDPE)
9845 polyvinyl chloride (PVC or V)
9846 low density polyethylene (LDPE)
9847 polypropylene (PP)
9848 polystyrene (PS)
9849 other (O)
Plastics (resin identification codes)