# Beyond the Standard Model

## Summary

- The unification of physical law is an ongoing theme in physics.
- Historical unification
- Newton's theory of universal gravitation unified the…
- terrestrial gravitation described by Galileo in his laws of falling bodies and projectiles and…
- celestial gravitation described by Kepler in his three laws of planetary motion.

- Maxwell's equations of electricity and magnetism (E&M) or electromagnetism unified the theories of…
- electricity as described by Franklin, Coulomb,
*et al*. with…
- magnetism as described by Gilbert, Michell,
*et al*. and then subsumed…
- optics as described by Hooke, Huygens, Newton, Young,
*et al*.

- In the early 20th century…
- gravitation was expanded into the theory of general relativity (GR) by Einstein;
- electromagnetism was expanded into the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED) by Feynman, Schwinger, Tomanaga, and Dyson; and
- the strong force was described in the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) of Gell-Mann and Zweig; but
- the weak force was
*not* described by an independent theory of what is sometimes informally called quantum flavordynamics (QFD).

- The electroweak theory (EWT) of Glashow, Weinberg, and Salaam extended…
- quantum electrodynamics, which had been described, to include…
- quantum flavordynamics, which had not yet been described.

- The standard model of particle physics…
- is the combination of…
- electroweak theory (EWT) and
- quantum chromodynamics (QCD)

- is not a theory unto itself

- Conjectural unification
- By extension, there should probably be a grand unified theory (GUT) that would unite…
- electroweak theory with…
- quantum chromodynamics.

- By extension, there should also be a theory of everything (TOE) that would unite the four fundamental forces of nature…
- gravity
- the strong force
- the weak force
- electromagnetism

- Some candidates for a theory of everything include…
- string theory, M theory, brane world, etc.
- supersymmetry

- Science is reductionist in nature.
- Complex entities are built from elementary constituents.
- Everything is essentially "atomic".

- The laws describing the behavior of elementary constituents are few in number.
- All additional "laws" can be derived from these few laws in principle.