The Hawaiian Island chain is more than just the visible islands. It also includes the Emperor Seamounts. (Seamounts are islands that have eroded down below sea level.) The combined Hawaii–Emperor chain is a series of volcanic structures formed by a single, long-lived plume of magma referred to as a "hotspot". The hotspot stayed fixed as the pacific plate slowly moved over it, resulting in a chain of volcanoes stretching from the Aleutian Islands off the coast of Alaska to Mount Kilauea on the Big Island of Hawaii. Use this data to determine the speed of the Pacific plate. The columns in this data set are as follows:
- volcano number
- volcano name
- volcano age (millions of years)
- distance from Kilauea (km)
- uncertainty in age (millions of years)
- uncertainty in distance (km)
Source: D.A. Clague & B.G. Dalrymple. "Tectonics, geomorphology and origin of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain." The Eastern Pacific Ocean and Hawaii. Eds., E.L. Winterer, D.M. Hussong, R.W. Decker. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America (1989): 188-217.