Isotopes

Discussion

nuclear models

This page is mostly just a pile of notes. There is very little prose here.

proton πρῶτον "at first"

Even numbers of protons and even numbers of neutrons are most stable. There are no stable elements heavier than bismuth (Z = 83). Two elements below Z = 83 do not exist naturally. Surprise, surprise, they have odd atomic numbers.


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isotopic ratios (isotopic signatures)

Tracers