Sensible Heat

Discussion

introduction

Heat that results in a temperature change is said to be "sensible" (although this term is falling out of favor). This is because it can be "sensed" I assume.

1781 Wilcke comes up with the concept of specific heats.

1819 Objects have a heat capacity, while materials have a specific heat capacity (often just called specific heat) was first defined by Pierre-Louis Dulong and Alexis-Thérèse Petit, France, 1819.

The specific heat of a material is the amount of heat required to change a unit mass of a substance by one unit of temperature.

Q = mcΔT

material cp (J/kg K)   material cp (J/kg K)
air, 200 K 1650   mica 880
air, 300 K 1158   neon 1030
air, 500 K 1073   nickel 444
air, 1000 K 1151   nitrogen (N2) 1040
alcohol, methyl (wood) 2530   oil, olive 1790
alcohol, ethyl (grain) 2440   oxygen (O2) 918
aluminum 897   perlite 387
ammonia, liquid 4700   platinum 133
ammonia, gas 2060   plutonium 140
argon 520   porcelain 1085
asphalt 920   salt 880
bone 440   sand 835
brass 375   scandium 568
brick 840   silicon 705
concrete 880   silver 235
carbon, diamond 516   soil, dry 800
carbon, graphite 717   soil, wet 1480
copper 385   snow 2090
freon 12, liquid 871   teflon 1172
freon 12, vapor 595   tin 228
glass, crown 670   titanium 523
glass, flint 503   tungsten 132
glass, pyrex 753   uranium 116
gold 129   water, ice, -5 ℃ 2090
granite 790   water, liquid, 0 ℃ 4217.6
gypsum 1090   water, liquid, 20 ℃ 4181.8
hydrogen (H2) 14,304   water, liquid, 40 ℃ 4178.5
helium 5193   water, liquid, 80 ℃ 4196.3
iron 449   water, liquid, 100 ℃ 4215.9
lead 129   water, vapor, 0 ℃ 3909.2
lithium 3582   water, vapor, 27℃ 3984.6
lucite 1460   water, vapor, 100 ℃ 4039.2
marble 880   wood 1700
mercury 140   zinc 388
Specific heat capacity at constant pressure for selected materials
(~300 K and ~100 kPa except where otherwise indicated).

water has an unusually high specific heat, the only natural substance with a higher specific heat is liquid ammonia